Galería Estatal Tretiakov — State Tretyakov Gallery — Государственная Третьяковская галерея
Borís Mijáilovich Kustódiev (ruso, Борис Михайлович Кустодиев; 7 de marzo de 1878–28 de mayo de 1927) fue un pintor y escenógrafo ruso.
Borís Kustódiev nació en Astrakán en la familia de un profesor de filosofía, historia de la literatura, y lógica en el seminario teológico local. Entre 1893 y 1896, Borís estudió en el seminario teológico y recibió clases privadas de arte en Astrakán de Pável Vlásov, un alumno de Vasili Perov.3 Posteriormente, desde 1896 hasta 1903, acudió al taller de Iliá Repin en la Academia Imperial de las Artes en San Petersburgo, colaborando posteriormente con él como ayudante. Expuso por vez primera en 1896.
Realizó visitas a Francia y España gracias a una beca de la Academia Imperial en 1904; luego, en 1907, estuvo en Italia, y en 1909 visitó Austria y Alemania, y de nuevo Francia e Italia. En esta época pintó sobre todo retratos y trabajos de género.
En 1905, Kustódiev se dedicó por vez primera a la ilustración de libros, un género que cultivaría el resto de su vida. Ilustró muchas obras de la literatura clásica rusa. Debido a una enfermedad, tuvo que marchar a Suiza, donde pasó un año en tratamiento en una clínica privada. Quedó parapléjico en 1916, estando a partir de entonces confinado en su habitación.
El artista también estuvo interesado en diseño de escenarios. Primero empezó a trabajar en el teatro en 1911, cuando diseñó decorados para la obra de Aleksandr Ostrovski Un corazón ardiente. Fue tal su éxito que le llegaron nuevos encargos. En 1913, diseñó escenario y vestuario para La muerte de Pázujin en el Teatro del Arte de Moscú. Demostró su talento en otras obras de Ostrovski.
En 1923, Kustódiev se unió a la Asociación de Artistas de la Rusia Revolucionaria. Siguió pintando, haciendo grabados, ilustrando libros y diseñando para el teatro hasta su muerte el 28 de mayo de 1927, en Leningrado.
Boris Mikhaylovich Kustodiev (Russian: Бори́с Миха́йлович Кусто́диев; 7 March [O.S. 23 February] 1878 – 28 May 1927) was a Russian painter and stage designer.
Boris Kustodiev was born in Astrakhan into the family of a professor of philosophy, history of literature, and logic at the local theological seminary. His father died young, and all financial and material burdens fell on his mother’s shoulders. The Kustodiev family rented a small wing in a rich merchant’s house. It was there that the boy’s first impressions were formed of the way of life of the provincial merchant class. The artist later wrote, "The whole tenor of the rich and plentiful merchant way of life was there right under my nose… It was like something out of an Ostrovsky play." The artist retained these childhood observations for years, recreating them later in oils and water-colours.
Between 1893 and 1896, Kustodiev studied in theological seminary and took private art lessons in Astrakhan from Pavel Vlasov, a pupil of Vasily Perov. Subsequently, from 1896 to 1903, he attended Ilya Repin’s studio at the Imperial Academy of Arts in St. Petersburg. Concurrently, he took classes in sculpture under Dmitry Stelletsky and in etching under Vasiliy Mate. He first exhibited in 1896.
"I have great hopes for Kustodiev," wrote Repin. "He is a talented artist and a thoughtful and serious man with a deep love of art; he is making a careful study of nature…" When Repin was commissioned to paint a large-scale canvas to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the State Council, he invited Kustodiev to be his assistant. The painting was extremely complex and involved a great deal of hard work. Together with his teacher, the young artist made portrait studies for the painting, and then executed the right-hand side of the final work. Also at this time, Kustodiev made a series of portraits of contemporaries whom he felt to be his spiritual comrades. These included the artist Ivan Bilibin (1901, Russian Museum), Moldovtsev (1901, Krasnodar Regional Art Museum), and the engraver Mate (1902, Russian Museum). Working on these portraits considerably helped the artist, forcing him to make a close study of his model and to penetrate the complex world of the human soul.
In 1903, he married Julia Proshinskaya (1880–1942).
He visited France and Spain on a grant from the Imperial Academy of Arts in 1904. Also in 1904, he attended the private studio of René Ménard in Paris. After that he traveled to Spain, then, in 1907, to Italy, and in 1909 he visited Austria and Germany, and again France and Italy. During these years he painted many portraits and genre pieces. However, no matter where Kustodiev happened to be – in sunny Seville or in the park at Versailles – he felt the irresistible pull of his motherland. After five months in France he returned to Russia, writing with evident joy to his friend Mate that he was back once more "in our blessed Russian land".
The Russian Revolution of 1905, which shook the foundations of society, evoked a vivid response in the artist’s soul. He contributed to the satirical journals Zhupel (Bugbear) and Adskaya Pochta (Hell’s Mail). At that time, he first met the artists of Mir Iskusstva (World of Art), the group of innovative Russian artists. He joined their association in 1910 and subsequently took part in all their exhibitions.
In 1905, Kustodiev first turned to book illustrating, a genre in which he worked throughout his entire life. He illustrated many works of classical Russian literature, including Nikolai Gogol’s Dead Souls, The Carriage, and The Overcoat; Mikhail Lermontov’s The Lay of Tsar Ivan Vasilyevich, His Young Oprichnik and the Stouthearted Merchant Kalashnikov; and Leo Tolstoy’s How the Devil Stole the Peasants Hunk of Bread and The Candle.
n 1909, he was elected into Imperial Academy of Arts. He continued to work intensively, but a grave illness—tuberculosis of the spine—required urgent attention. On the advice of his doctors he went to Switzerland, where he spent a year undergoing treatment in a private clinic. He pined for his distant homeland, and Russian themes continued to provide the basic material for the works he painted during that year. In 1918, he painted The Merchant’s Wife, which became the most famous of his paintings.
In 1916, he became paraplegic. "Now my whole world is my room", he wrote. His ability to remain joyful and lively despite his paralysis amazed others. His colourful paintings and joyful genre pieces do not reveal his physical suffering, and on the contrary give the impression of a carefree and cheerful life.
His Pancake Tuesday/Maslenitsa (1916) and Fontanka (1916) are all painted from his memories. He meticulously restores his own childhood in the busy city on the Volga banks.
In the first years after the Russian Revolution of 1917 the artist worked with great inspiration in various fields. Contemporary themes became the basis for his work, being embodied in drawings for calendars and book covers, and in illustrations and sketches of street decorations, as well as some portraits (Portrait of Countess Grabowska)
His covers for the journals The Red Cornfield and Red Panorama attracted attention because of their vividness and the sharpness of their subject matter. Kustodiev also worked in lithography, illustrating works by Nekrasov. His illustrations for Leskov’s stories The Darner and Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District were landmarks in the history of Russian book designing, so well did they correspond to the literary images.
The artist was also interested in designing stage scenery. He first started work in the theatre in 1911, when he designed the sets for Alexander Ostrovsky’s An Ardent Heart. Such was his success that further orders came pouring in. In 1913, he designed the sets and costumes for The Death of Pazukhin at the Moscow Art Theatre.
His talent in this sphere was especially apparent in his work for Ostrovsky’s plays; It’s a Family Affair, A Stroke of Luck, Wolves and Sheep, and The Storm. The milieu of Ostrovsky’s plays—provincial life and the world of the merchant class—was close to Kustodiev’s own genre paintings, and he worked easily and quickly on the stage sets.
In 1923, Kustodiev joined the Association of Artists of Revolutionary Russia. He continued to paint, make engravings, illustrate books, and design for the theater up until his death of tuberculosis on 28 May 1927, in Leningrad.
La Galería Estatal Tretiakov (en ruso: Государственная Третьяковская галерея [Gosudárstvennaya Tret’yakóvskaya galereya]) es una galería de arte ubicada en Moscú, Rusia, considerada el principal depositario de bellas artes rusas en el mundo.
Fue fundada en (1856) por el comerciante moscovita Pável Tretiakov (1832-1898), quien adquirió varias obras de artistas rusos contemporáneos, con el objetivo de crear una colección artística, que devino finalmente en este museo de arte nacional. En 1892, Tretiakov presentó su ya famoso repertorio a la nación rusa.
La fachada del edificio que alberga la galería, fue diseñada por el pintor Víktor Vasnetsov, al estilo típico de un cuento de hadas ruso. Fue construido entre 1902 y 1904 al sur del Kremlin de Moscú. Durante el siglo XX, la galería se extendió hacia varios inmuebles adyacentes, incluyendo la Iglesia de San Nicolás en Jamóvniki. Una edificación nueva, localizada en el Krymski Val, es usada para la promoción de arte ruso moderno.
La colección está conformada por más de 130 000 obras de arte, del rango de la Virgen de Vladímir y la Trinidad de Andréi Rubliov, hasta la monumental Composición VII de Vasili Kandinski y el Cuadrado Negro de Kazimir Malévich. En 1977, la galería contenía una significativa parte de la colección de George Costakis. Además, figuran otras obras igualmente importantes de los artistas Iván Aivazovski, Iván Argunov, Vasili Súrikov, Abram Arkhipov, Andréi Kolkutin, Orest Kiprenski, Valentín Serov, Vasili Polénov, Dmitri Levitski, Iliá Repin, Mijaíl Nésterov, Iván Shishkin y Marc Chagall.
The State Tretyakov Gallery (Russian: Государственная Третьяковская Галерея, Gosudarstvennaya Tretyâkovskaya Galereya; abbreviated ГТГ, GTG) is an art gallery in Moscow, Russia, the foremost depository of Russian fine art in the world.
The gallery’s history starts in 1856 when the Moscow merchant Pavel Mikhailovich Tretyakov acquired works by Russian artists of his day with the aim of creating a collection, which might later grow into a museum of national art. In 1892, Tretyakov presented his already famous collection of approximately 2,000 works (1,362 paintings, 526 drawings, and 9 sculptures) to the Russian nation.
The façade of the gallery building was designed by the painter Viktor Vasnetsov in a peculiar Russian fairy-tale style. It was built in 1902–04 to the south from the Moscow Kremlin. During the 20th century, the gallery expanded to several neighboring buildings, including the 17th-century church of St. Nicholas in Tolmachi.
The collection contains more than 130,000 exhibits, ranging from Theotokos of Vladimir and Andrei Rublev’s Trinity to the monumental Composition VII by Wassily Kandinsky and the Black Square by Kazimir Malevich.
In 1977 the Gallery kept a significant part of the George Costakis collection.
In May 2012, the Tretyakov Art Gallery played host to the prestigious FIDE World Chess Championship between Viswanathan Anand and Boris Gelfand as the organizers felt the event would promote both chess and art at the same time.
Pavel Tretyakov started collecting art in the middle of 1850. The founding year of the Tretyakov Gallery is considered to be 1856, when Tretyakov purchased two paintings of Russian artists: Temptation by N. G. Schilder and Skirmish with Finnish Smugglers by V. G. Kudyakov, although earlier, in 1854–1855, he had bought 11 drawings and nine pictures by Dutch Old Masters. In 1867 the Moscow City Gallery of Pavel and Sergei Tretyakov was opened. The Gallery’s collection consisted of 1,276 paintings, 471 sculptures and 10 drawings by Russian artists, as well as 84 paintings by foreign masters.
In August 1892 Tretyakov presented his art gallery to the city of Moscow as a gift. In the collection at this time, there were 1,287 paintings and 518 graphic works of the Russian school, 75 paintings and eight drawings of European schools, 15 sculptures and a collection of icons. The official opening of the museum called the Moscow City Gallery of Pavel and Sergei Tretyakov took place on August 15, 1893.
The gallery was located in a mansion that the Tretykov family had purchased in 1851. As the Tretyakov collection of art grew, the residential part of the mansion filled with art and it became necessary to make additions to the mansion in order to store and display the works of art. Additions were made in 1873, 1882, 1885, 1892 and 1902–1904, when there was the famous façade, designed in 1900–1903 by architect V. Bashkirov from the drawings of the artist Viktor Vasnetsov. Construction of the façade was managed by the architect A. M. Kalmykov.
In early 1913, the Moscow City Duma elected Igor Grabar as a trustee of the Tretyakov Gallery
On June 3, 1918, the Tretyakov Gallery was declared owned by Russian Federated Soviet Republic and was named the State Tretyakov Gallery. Igor Grabar was again appointed director of the museum. With Grabar’s active participation in the same year, the State Museum Fund was created, which up until 1927 remained one of the most important sources of replenishment of the gallery’s collection.
In 1926 architect and academician A. V. Shchusev became the director of the gallery. In the following year the gallery acquired the neighboring house on Maly Tolmachevsky Lane (the house was the former home of the merchant Sokolikov). After restructuring in 1928, it housed the gallery’s administration, academic departments, library, manuscripts department, and funds and graphics staffs. In 1985–1994, an administrative building was built from the design of architect A. L. Bernstein with two floors and height equal to that of the exposition halls.
In 1928 serious renovations were made to the gallery to provide heating and ventilation. In 1929 electricity was installed.
In 1929 the church of St. Nicholas in Tolmachi was closed, and in 1932 the building was given to the gallery and became a storage facility for paintings and sculptures. Later, the church was connected to the exposition halls and a top floor was built which was specially designed for exhibiting a painting by A. A. Ivanov,The Appearance of Christ to the People (1837–1857). A transition space was built between rooms located on either side of the main staircase. This ensured the continuity of the view of exposure. The gallery began to develop a new concept of accommodating exhibits.
In 1936, a new two floor building was constructed which is located on the north side of the main building – it is known as the Schusevsky building. These halls were first used for exhibitions, and since 1940 have been included in the main route of exposure.
From the first days of the Great War, the gallery’s personnel began dismantling the exhibition, as well as those of other museums in Moscow, in preparation for evacuating during wartime. Paintings were rolled on wooden shafts, covered with tissue paper, placed in boxes, and sheathed with waterproof material. In the middle of the summer of 1941 a train of 17 wagons traveled from Moscow and brought the collection to Novosibirsk. The gallery was not reopened in Moscow until May 17, 1945, upon the conclusion of the Great War.
In 1956, in honor of the 100th anniversary of the Tretyakov Gallery, the Alexander Ivanov Hall was completed.
From 1980 to 1992, the director of the Tretyakov Gallery was Y. K. Korolev. Because of the increased number of visitors, Korolev was actively engaged in expanding the area of exposition. In 1983, construction work began to expand the gallery. In 1985 the Depository, a repository of works of art and restoration workshops, was commissioned. In 1986 renovations began on the main building of the Tretyakov Gallery. The architects I. M. Vinogradsky, G. V. Astafev, B. A. Klimov and others were retained to perform this project. In 1989, on the south side of the main building, a new building was designed and constructed to house a conference hall, a computer and information center, children’s studio and exhibition halls. The building was named the "Corps of Engineers", because it housed engineering systems and services.
From 1986 to 1995, the Tretyakov Gallery in Lavrushinsky Lane was closed to visitors to accommodate a major renovation project to the building. At the time, the only museum in the exhibition area of this decade was the building on the Crimean Val, 10, which in 1985 was merged with the Tretyakov Gallery.
In 1985, the Tretyakov Gallery was administratively merged with a gallery of contemporary art, housed in a large modern building along the Garden Ring, immediately south of the Krymsky Bridge. The grounds of this branch of the museum contain a collection of Socialist Realism sculpture, including such highlights as Yevgeny Vuchetich’s iconic statue Iron Felix (which was removed from Lubyanka Square in 1991), the Swords Into Plowshares sculpture representing a nude worker forging a plough out of a sword, and the Young Russia monument. Nearby is Zurab Tsereteli’s 86-metre-tall statue of Peter the Great, one of the tallest outdoor statues in the world.
Near the gallery of modern art there is a sculpture garden called "the graveyard of fallen monuments" that displays statues of former Soviet Union that were relocated.
There are plans to demolish the gallery constructed in the late Soviet modernism style, though public opinion is strongly against this.
, Boris Kustodiev , Haymaking (1917) , Galería Estatal Tretiakov , State Tretyakov Gallery , Государственная Третьяковская галерея , ГТГ , GTG , Moscú , Rusia , Moscow , Russia , Москва , Россия , Fujifilm XE3 , Fuji XE3 , Fujinon10-24 #XE3F4859 #Haymaking #Boris #Kustodiev
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