XE3F4854 — Roses in blue jugs (1917), By Konstantin Korovin

Galería Estatal Tretiakov — State Tretyakov Gallery — Государственная Третьяковская галерея

Konstantín Alekséyevich Korovin (En ruso: Константин Алексеевич Коровин, a veces escrito el nombre como Constantin) (Moscú, 23 de noviembre de 1861 (fechas antiguas, en el calendario juliano, 5 de diciembre) — París, 11 de septiembre de 1939, París) fue un destacado pintor impresionista ruso.
Konstantín nació en Moscú en una familia de comerciantes oficialmente registrados como campesinos de la gubernia de Vladímir. Su padre, Alekséi Mijaílovich Korovin, consiguió un título universitario y estaba más interesado en las artes y en la música que en el negocio familiar establecido por el abuelo de Konstantín. El hermano mayor de Konstantín, Serguéi Korovin fue un destacado pintor realista. Ilarión Pryánishnikov, pariente de Konstantín, fue también un destacado pintor de la época y un maestro en la Escuela de Moscú de Pintura, Escultura y Arquitectura.
En 1875 Konstantín entró en la Escuela de Moscú, donde aprendió con Vasili Perov y Alekséi Savrásov. Su hermano Serguei ya era estudiante de la Escuela. Durante sus años académicos los Korovin se hicieron amigos de sus compañeros estudiantes Valentín Serov e Isaak Levitán, Kontantín mantuvo esta amistad durante el resto de su vida.
En 1881-1882, Korovin pasó un año en la Academia Imperial de las Artes en San Petersburgo, pero regresó disgustado a la Escuela de Moscú. Estudió en la escuela con el nuevo maestro Vasili Polénov hasta 1886.
En 1885, Korovin viajó a París y a España. París fue una sorpresa para mí… Los impresionistas… en ellos encontré todo por lo que a mi me regañaban en casa, en Moscú, escribió más tarde.
Polenov presentó a Korovin al círculo de Abrámtsevo de Savva Mámontov: Víktor Vasnetsov, Apollinari Vasnetsov, Iliá Repin, Mark Antokolski y otros. El amor del círculo de Abrámtsevo por los temas rusos estilizados se reflejan en la obra de Korovin Un idilio nórdico. En 1885 Korovin trabajó para la ópera de Mámontov. Diseñó los decorados de Aida, de Verdi, Lakmé de Delibes y Carmen de Bizet.
En 1888, Korovin viajó con Mámontov a Italia y España, iniciando en Valencia la pintura de En el balcón, mujeres españolas Leonor y Amparo. El cuadro obtuvo la medalla de oro en la Exposición Universal de París de 1900. Konstantín viajó por Rusia, el Cáucaso y Asia Central, expuso con los Peredvízhniki. En la exposición de los Peredvizhniki, debutó en 1889 precisamente con el cuadro En el balcón. Pintó primero con estilo impresionista, y después, art nouveau.
En la década de los noventa, Korovin se convirtió en miembro del grupo artístico Mir iskusstva (Mundo del Arte).
Las obras posteriores de Korovin estuvieron muy influidas por su viaje al Norte. En 1888 quedó cautivado por los severos paisajes nórdicos, como puede verse en La costa de Noruega y el mar del Norte.
Su segundo viaje al Norte, con Valentín Serov en 1894, coincidió con la construcción del Ferrocarril del Norte. Korovin pintó un gran número de paisajes: Puerto noruego, Arroyo de San Trifón en Pechenega, Hammerfest: Aurora Borealis, La costa de Múrmansk y otros. Los cuadros están construidos por una delicada red de tonos grisáceos. El estilo de estudio de estas obras era típico del arte de Korovin de los noventa.
Usando materiales de este viaje al Norte, Korovin diseñó el pabellón del Ferrocarril del Norte en la Exposición Panrusa de 1896 en Nizhni Nóvgorod.
En 1900, Korovin diseñó la sección de Asia Central del pabellón del Imperio Ruso en la Exposición Universal de París (1900); fue premiado con la Legión de Honor por el gobierno francés.
A comienzos del siglo XX, siguiendo una fuerte atracción por el teatro que había comenzado con Savva Mámontov, Korovin se trasladó al Teatro Mariinski en San Petersburgo. Apartándose de la tradición del decorado escénico, que sólo indicaba el lugar de la acción, Korovin produjo un decorado anímico, que transmitía las emociones generales de la representación. Korovin diseñó ambientaciones para las producciones dramáticas de Konstantín Stanislavski, así como óperas y ballets del Mariinsky. Hizo el diseño escénico para producciones del Mariinski como Faust (1899), El caballito jorobado (1901) y Sadkó (1906) que se hicieron famosos por su expresividad.
Uno de los temas favoritos del artista fue París. Pintó Un café de París (años noventa), Cafe de la Paix (1905), La Plaza de la Bastilla (1906), París de noche; Le Boulevard Italien (1908), Carnaval nocturno (1901), París por la tarde (1907) y otros.
Durante la Primera Guerra Mundial Korovin trabajó como asesor de camuflaje en los cuarteles de uno de los ejércitos rusos y a menudo se le vio en la línea del frente. Después de la Revolución de octubre Korovin siguió trabajando en el teatro, diseñando el escenario de óperas de Richard Wagner como La valquiria y Sigfrido así como el Cascanueces de Chaikovski (1918-1920).
En 1923 Korovin se trasladó a París por consejo del Comisario del Pueblo de Instrucción pública, Lunacharski, para curar su condición cardíac. Se suponía que iba a celebrarse una gran exposición de obras de Korovin, pero las obras fueron robadas y Korovin quedó arruinado. Durante años produjo numerosos Inviernos rusos y Bulevares de París para sobrevivir.
En los últimos años de vida, produjo decorados para los principales teatros de Europa, Estados Unidos, Asia y Australia, siendo el más famoso de ellos el que diseñó para una producción de la Ópera de Turín de El gallo de oro, obra de Rimski-Kórsakov. Korovin murió en París el 11 de septiembre de 1939.

es.wikipedia./wiki/Konstantín_Korovin

Konstantin Alekseyevich Korovin (Russian: Константи́н Алексе́евич Коро́вин, first name often spelled Constantin; 5 December [O.S. 23 November] 1861 – 11 September 1939) was a leading Russian Impressionist painter.
Konstantin was born in Moscow to a merchant family officially registered as "peasants of Vladimir Gubernia". His father, Aleksey Mikhailovich Korovin, earned a university degree and was more interested in arts and music than in the family business established by Konstantin’s grandfather. Konstantin’s older brother Sergei Korovin was a notable realist painter. Konstantin’s relative Illarion Pryanishnikov was also a prominent painter of the time and a teacher at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture.
In 1875 Korovin entered the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, where he studied with Vasily Perov and Alexei Savrasov. His brother Sergei was already a student at the school. During their student years, the Korovins became friends with fellow students Valentin Serov and Isaac Levitan; Konstantin maintained these friendships throughout his life.
In 1881–1882, Korovin spent a year at the Imperial Academy of Arts in St. Petersburg, but returned disappointed to the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture. He studied at the school under his new teacher Vasily Polenov until 1886.
In 1885 Korovin traveled to Paris and Spain. "Paris was a shock for me … Impressionists… in them I found everything I was scolded for back home in Moscow", he later wrote.
Polenov introduced Korovin to Savva Mamontov’s Abramtsevo Circle: Viktor Vasnetsov, Apollinary Vasnetsov, Ilya Repin, Mark Antokolsky and others. The group’s love for stylized Russian themes is reflected in Korovin’s picture A Northern Idyll. In 1885 Korovin worked for Mamontov’s opera house, designing the stage decor for Giuseppe Verdi’s Aida, Léo Delibes’ Lakmé and Georges Bizet’s Carmen.
In 1888 Korovin traveled with Mamontov to Italy and Spain, where he produced the painting On the Balcony, Spanish Women Leonora and Ampara. Konstantin traveled within Russia, the Caucasus and Central Asia and exhibited with the Peredvizhniki. He painted in the Impressionist, and later in the Art Nouveau, styles.
In the 1890s Korovin became a member of the Mir iskusstva art group.
Korovin’s subsequent works were strongly influenced by his travels to the north. In 1888 he was captivated by the stern northern landscapes seen in The Coast of Norway and the Northern Sea.
His second trip to the north, with Valentin Serov in 1894, coincided with the construction of the Northern Railway. Korovin painted a large number of landscapes: Norwegian Port, St. Triphon’s Brook in Pechenga, Hammerfest: Aurora Borealis, The Coast at Murmansk and others. The paintings are built on a delicate web of shades of grey. The etude style of these works was typical for Korovin’s art of the 1890s.
Using material from his trip, Korovin designed the Far North pavilion at the 1896 All Russia Exhibition in Nizhny Novgorod. He painted ten big canvasses for the pavilion as well, depicting various aspects of life in the northern and Arctic regions. After the closure of the Exhibition, the canvasses were eventually placed in the Yaroslavsky Rail Terminal in Moscow. In the 1960s, they were restored and transferred to the Tretyakov Gallery.[1]
In 1900 Korovin designed the Central Asia section of the Russian Empire pavilion at the Paris World Fair and was awarded the Legion of Honour by the French government.
In the beginning of the 20th century, Korovin focused his attention on the theater. He moved from Mamontov’s opera to the Mariinsky Theatre in St. Petersburg. Departing from traditional stage decor, which only indicated the place of action, Korovin produced a mood decor conveying the general emotions of the performance. Korovin designed sets for Konstantin Stanislavsky’s dramatic productions, as well as Mariinsky’s operas and ballets. He did the stage design for such Mariinsky productions as Faust (1899), The Little Humpbacked Horse (1901), and Sadko (1906) that became famous for their expressiveness.
One of the artist’s favourite themes was Paris. He painted A Paris Cafe (1890s), Cafe de la Paix (1905), La Place de la Bastille (1906), Paris at Night, Le Boulevard Italien (1908), Night Carnival (1901), Paris in the Evening (1907), and others.
During World War I Korovin worked as a camouflage consultant at the headquarters of one of the Russian armies and was often seen on the front lines. After the October Revolution Korovin continued to work in the theater, designing stages for Richard Wagner’s Die Walküre and Siegfried, as well as Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky’s The Nutcracker (1918–1920).
In 1923 Korovin moved to Paris on the advice of Commissar of Education Anatoly Lunacharsky to cure his heart condition. There was supposed to be a large exhibition of Korovin’s works, but the works were stolen and Korovin was left penniless. For years, he produced the numerous Russian Winters and Paris Boulevards just to make ends meet.
In the last years of his life he produced stage designs for many of the major theatres of Europe, America, Asia and Australia, the most famous of which is his scenery for the Turin Opera House’s production of Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov’s The Golden Cockerel. Korovin died in Paris on 11 September 1939.

en.wikipedia./wiki/Konstantin_Korovin

La Galería Estatal Tretiakov (en ruso: Государственная Третьяковская галерея [Gosudárstvennaya Tret’yakóvskaya galereya]) es una galería de arte ubicada en Moscú, Rusia, considerada el principal depositario de bellas artes rusas en el mundo.
Fue fundada en (1856) por el comerciante moscovita Pável Tretiakov (1832-1898), quien adquirió varias obras de artistas rusos contemporáneos, con el objetivo de crear una colección artística, que devino finalmente en este museo de arte nacional. En 1892, Tretiakov presentó su ya famoso repertorio a la nación rusa.
La fachada del edificio que alberga la galería, fue diseñada por el pintor Víktor Vasnetsov, al estilo típico de un cuento de hadas ruso. Fue construido entre 1902 y 1904 al sur del Kremlin de Moscú. Durante el siglo XX, la galería se extendió hacia varios inmuebles adyacentes, incluyendo la Iglesia de San Nicolás en Jamóvniki. Una edificación nueva, localizada en el Krymski Val, es usada para la promoción de arte ruso moderno.
La colección está conformada por más de 130 000 obras de arte, del rango de la Virgen de Vladímir y la Trinidad de Andréi Rubliov, hasta la monumental Composición VII de Vasili Kandinski y el Cuadrado Negro de Kazimir Malévich. En 1977, la galería contenía una significativa parte de la colección de George Costakis. Además, figuran otras obras igualmente importantes de los artistas Iván Aivazovski, Iván Argunov, Vasili Súrikov, Abram Arkhipov, Andréi Kolkutin, Orest Kiprenski, Valentín Serov, Vasili Polénov, Dmitri Levitski, Iliá Repin, Mijaíl Nésterov, Iván Shishkin y Marc Chagall.

es.wikipedia./wiki/Galería_Tretiakov

The State Tretyakov Gallery (Russian: Государственная Третьяковская Галерея, Gosudarstvennaya Tretyâkovskaya Galereya; abbreviated ГТГ, GTG) is an art gallery in Moscow, Russia, the foremost depository of Russian fine art in the world.
The gallery’s history starts in 1856 when the Moscow merchant Pavel Mikhailovich Tretyakov acquired works by Russian artists of his day with the aim of creating a collection, which might later grow into a museum of national art. In 1892, Tretyakov presented his already famous collection of approximately 2,000 works (1,362 paintings, 526 drawings, and 9 sculptures) to the Russian nation.
The façade of the gallery building was designed by the painter Viktor Vasnetsov in a peculiar Russian fairy-tale style. It was built in 1902–04 to the south from the Moscow Kremlin. During the 20th century, the gallery expanded to several neighboring buildings, including the 17th-century church of St. Nicholas in Tolmachi.
The collection contains more than 130,000 exhibits, ranging from Theotokos of Vladimir and Andrei Rublev’s Trinity to the monumental Composition VII by Wassily Kandinsky and the Black Square by Kazimir Malevich.
In 1977 the Gallery kept a significant part of the George Costakis collection.
In May 2012, the Tretyakov Art Gallery played host to the prestigious FIDE World Chess Championship between Viswanathan Anand and Boris Gelfand as the organizers felt the event would promote both chess and art at the same time.
Pavel Tretyakov started collecting art in the middle of 1850. The founding year of the Tretyakov Gallery is considered to be 1856, when Tretyakov purchased two paintings of Russian artists: Temptation by N. G. Schilder and Skirmish with Finnish Smugglers by V. G. Kudyakov, although earlier, in 1854–1855, he had bought 11 drawings and nine pictures by Dutch Old Masters. In 1867 the Moscow City Gallery of Pavel and Sergei Tretyakov was opened. The Gallery’s collection consisted of 1,276 paintings, 471 sculptures and 10 drawings by Russian artists, as well as 84 paintings by foreign masters.
In August 1892 Tretyakov presented his art gallery to the city of Moscow as a gift. In the collection at this time, there were 1,287 paintings and 518 graphic works of the Russian school, 75 paintings and eight drawings of European schools, 15 sculptures and a collection of icons. The official opening of the museum called the Moscow City Gallery of Pavel and Sergei Tretyakov took place on August 15, 1893.
The gallery was located in a mansion that the Tretykov family had purchased in 1851. As the Tretyakov collection of art grew, the residential part of the mansion filled with art and it became necessary to make additions to the mansion in order to store and display the works of art. Additions were made in 1873, 1882, 1885, 1892 and 1902–1904, when there was the famous façade, designed in 1900–1903 by architect V. Bashkirov from the drawings of the artist Viktor Vasnetsov. Construction of the façade was managed by the architect A. M. Kalmykov.
In early 1913, the Moscow City Duma elected Igor Grabar as a trustee of the Tretyakov Gallery
On June 3, 1918, the Tretyakov Gallery was declared owned by Russian Federated Soviet Republic and was named the State Tretyakov Gallery. Igor Grabar was again appointed director of the museum. With Grabar’s active participation in the same year, the State Museum Fund was created, which up until 1927 remained one of the most important sources of replenishment of the gallery’s collection.
In 1926 architect and academician A. V. Shchusev became the director of the gallery. In the following year the gallery acquired the neighboring house on Maly Tolmachevsky Lane (the house was the former home of the merchant Sokolikov). After restructuring in 1928, it housed the gallery’s administration, academic departments, library, manuscripts department, and funds and graphics staffs. In 1985–1994, an administrative building was built from the design of architect A. L. Bernstein with two floors and height equal to that of the exposition halls.
In 1928 serious renovations were made to the gallery to provide heating and ventilation. In 1929 electricity was installed.
In 1929 the church of St. Nicholas in Tolmachi was closed, and in 1932 the building was given to the gallery and became a storage facility for paintings and sculptures. Later, the church was connected to the exposition halls and a top floor was built which was specially designed for exhibiting a painting by A. A. Ivanov,The Appearance of Christ to the People (1837–1857). A transition space was built between rooms located on either side of the main staircase. This ensured the continuity of the view of exposure. The gallery began to develop a new concept of accommodating exhibits.
In 1936, a new two floor building was constructed which is located on the north side of the main building – it is known as the Schusevsky building. These halls were first used for exhibitions, and since 1940 have been included in the main route of exposure.
From the first days of the Great War, the gallery’s personnel began dismantling the exhibition, as well as those of other museums in Moscow, in preparation for evacuating during wartime. Paintings were rolled on wooden shafts, covered with tissue paper, placed in boxes, and sheathed with waterproof material. In the middle of the summer of 1941 a train of 17 wagons traveled from Moscow and brought the collection to Novosibirsk. The gallery was not reopened in Moscow until May 17, 1945, upon the conclusion of the Great War.
In 1956, in honor of the 100th anniversary of the Tretyakov Gallery, the Alexander Ivanov Hall was completed.
From 1980 to 1992, the director of the Tretyakov Gallery was Y. K. Korolev. Because of the increased number of visitors, Korolev was actively engaged in expanding the area of exposition. In 1983, construction work began to expand the gallery. In 1985 the Depository, a repository of works of art and restoration workshops, was commissioned. In 1986 renovations began on the main building of the Tretyakov Gallery. The architects I. M. Vinogradsky, G. V. Astafev, B. A. Klimov and others were retained to perform this project. In 1989, on the south side of the main building, a new building was designed and constructed to house a conference hall, a computer and information center, children’s studio and exhibition halls. The building was named the "Corps of Engineers", because it housed engineering systems and services.
From 1986 to 1995, the Tretyakov Gallery in Lavrushinsky Lane was closed to visitors to accommodate a major renovation project to the building. At the time, the only museum in the exhibition area of this decade was the building on the Crimean Val, 10, which in 1985 was merged with the Tretyakov Gallery.
In 1985, the Tretyakov Gallery was administratively merged with a gallery of contemporary art, housed in a large modern building along the Garden Ring, immediately south of the Krymsky Bridge. The grounds of this branch of the museum contain a collection of Socialist Realism sculpture, including such highlights as Yevgeny Vuchetich’s iconic statue Iron Felix (which was removed from Lubyanka Square in 1991), the Swords Into Plowshares sculpture representing a nude worker forging a plough out of a sword, and the Young Russia monument. Nearby is Zurab Tsereteli’s 86-metre-tall statue of Peter the Great, one of the tallest outdoor statues in the world.
Near the gallery of modern art there is a sculpture garden called "the graveyard of fallen monuments" that displays statues of former Soviet Union that were relocated.
There are plans to demolish the gallery constructed in the late Soviet modernism style, though public opinion is strongly against this.
en.wikipedia./wiki/Tretyakov_Gallery

.tretyakovgallery./en/

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